Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 6th International Conference on Epidemiology & Public Health | Holiday Inn , Paris, France.

Day 3 :

Keynote Forum

Cristina Stasi

Regional Health Agency of Tuscany, Italy

Keynote: Global burden of chronic hepatitis b virus infection in prison

Time : 09:30-10:10

Epidemiology 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Cristina Stasi photo
Biography:

Cristina Stasi graduated in Medicine and Surgery at the Catholic University of “Sacro Cuore”, Rome (2001). In 2006 she specialized in Gastroenterology at the University of Pisa. From 2006 to 2009 she took part in Clinical Research Projects at the University Hospital “Careggi”, Florence. At the same time, she improved her knowledge in Study Design, Management of Clinical Research Project, Statistics and Epidemiology. In 2013, she received her PhD in Experimental and Clinical Medicine from the University of Florence. She has published about 50 papers in reputed international journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of some international journals.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Despite a vaccine against Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) has been available since 1982, the prevalence of adult with chronic HBV infection in sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia was estimated to be 5–10%. High rate of chronic infections is also found in the Amazon and the southern parts of eastern and central Europe. In the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent, the prevalence is of 2–5%. Less than 1% of the population of Western Europe and North America was chronically infected. Given the high prevalence of infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HBV, and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) among inmates, particularly those with a history of injection drug use, prison is considered reservoir facilitating these infections. The prevalence of HBsAg in prisoners in west and central Africa was very high (23.5%). High levels of chronic HBV infection were also reported in east and southern Africa (5.7%) and in Eastern Europe and central Asia (10.4%).

 

Purpose: The purpose of this review is to analyse the most recent data on HBV prevalence and vaccination in prison.

 

Methodology: Relevant studies were searched on PubMed database. The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has highlighted the importance of HBV blood screening and the subsequent anti-HBV vaccination in the prison population. The vaccination was recommended to all inmates and it represents an opportunity to prevent HBV infection in persons at high risk. In these subjects, an accelerated hepatitis B immunization schedule may result in a rapid seroconversion and practically in an early short-term protection.

Conclusion & Significance: Although hepatitis B vaccination of inmates has been recommended since the vaccine first became available in 1982, only some state vaccinate inmates routinely. Therefore, it is necessary to have a collaboration between public health, clinicians and correctional authorities to implement vaccination program.

Keynote Forum

Fontaine G H

Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, France

Keynote: Atrial Dysplasia and the high frequency of Atrial Fibrillation in ARVD patients
Epidemiology 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Fontaine G H photo
Biography:

Guy H Fontaine MD PhD HDR has made 15 original contributions in the design and the use of the first cardiac pacemakers in the early 60s. He has serendipitously identified ARVD during antiarrhythmic surgery in the early 70s. He has developed the technique of Fulguration to replace surgery in the early 80s. He has been one of the 216 individuals who have made a significant contribution to the study of cardiovascular disease since the 14th century and one of the 500 greatest geniuses of the 21st Century (USA Books), one of the 100 lifetime of achievement (UK Book). He has > 900 publications including 201 book chapters. He is a reviewer of 17 scientific journals both in basic and clinical science. He has given 11 master lectures of 90 minutes each in inland China in 2014. He is now developing new techniques for brain protection in OHCA, stroke and spinal cord injury by hypothermia.

Abstract:

Introduction: Tonet et al. from Paris were the first to demonstrate a susceptibility of ARVD patients to supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. This concept was confirmed on larger series of ARVD patients from the USA and Switzerland. It was also observed by the senior author that atrial fibrillation/tachyarrhythmias (AF/AT) could be the first presentation of the disease. It was therefore logical to study the atrial pathology of three ARVD patients who died of a non-cardiac cause. This abstract is the first to present the atrial histology of ARVD patients with comparison to healthy controls considering the typical histologic changes known in the RV in ARVD.

Methods: Histology of the right atrium (RA) was available in only 3 cases from a series of 73 ARVD patients, in whom ARVD was confirmed by pathology. The observed anomalies were adipocytes in two cases, interstitial fibrosis in all, associated with replacement fibrosis in one case. This prompted us to study the RA structure in four subsequent control patients without cardiovascular disease. Light microscopic examination with Leica digital image processing was performed. Staining was performed with HPS in ARVD to improve identification of fibrosis, and HE in the control group.

Results: The atrial pathology of all of these so-called normal individuals presented anomalies, which can be interpreted as the background of an atrial arrhythmogenic substrate similar to the recently reported pathology of the RV in ARVD (GF Editorial AJC 2014). As such, we found adipose tissue, interstitial and replacement fibrosis including one case of lymphocytic infiltration in the atria of these healthy controls, like histologic changes of the RV observed in ARVD. Furthermore, we identified a perpendicular orientation of atrial myocardial fibres.

Discussion: The interface between the two perpendicular layers can be a zone of weakness leading to fat and fibrosis, particularly if increased loading conditions are present. Desmosomal variants may enhance this remodelling. However, since desmosomal mutations have not been observed in the normal heart, it is therefore possible to consider other genes or posttranslational modification to underlay these changes. The unexpected results of this preliminary study need further confirmation. However, we propose new mechanisms including the role of active as well as healed myocarditis which may precede the development of AF/AT and explain why these arrhythmias are the most frequent in the human species.

Conclusions: The same pathological substrate of ventricular myocardium in ARVD is also extending to the atrium explaining the high frequency of AF in ARVD patients.

  • Epidemiology and Antibiotic Resistance | Infectious Disease | Congenital Heart Disease | Disease control | Etiology

Session Introduction

Marjan Zare

Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran

Title: Space-Time Cluster Analysis of Malaria in Fars Province, Iran
Biography:

Marjan Zare pursued MS in Biostatistics and is a PhD student in Epidemiology. He has expertise in statistical and epidemiological modelling, and has passion in improving health care and public health policies. She has been working for Shiraz Medical School research center for three years and she knows how to work with R, ITSM, CMA, Lisrel, Arc GIS, SaTScan, SPSS, Python language softwares to do ordinary statistical analysis. Also, she is interested in doing micro array analysis using Mega Data in field of genetics; hereby she knows how to work with the related softwares like Plink and Hoploview. The basis of this research is to predict the potential outbreaks in the future using Time-Series data 

Abstract:

Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is an infectious endemic disease in most provinces of Iran, which is among public health problems. CL is prevalent in 88 countries in the world, infecting nearly 12 million individuals. Almost two million new leishmaniasis cases occur yearly, with CL accounting for 1500000 cases. Fars province is known to be an endemic area for CL.

 

Study objective: The objective of this study is to assess the spatiotemporal trait of CL in Fars province, Iran.

 

Materials & Methods: Spatiotemporal cluster analysis was done retrospectively to find spatiotemporal clusters of CL cases. Time-series data were recorded from 29201 cases in Fars province, Iran from 2010 to 2015, which were used to verify if the cases were distributed randomly over time and place. Then, subgroup analysis was applied to find significant sub-clusters within large clusters. Spatiotemporal permutation scans statistics in addition to subgroup analysis were implemented using SaTScan software.

 

Results: This study resulted in statistically significant spatiotemporal clusters of CL (p<0.05). The most likely cluster contained 350 cases from 1 July 2010 to 30 November 2010. Besides, 5 secondary clusters were detected in different periods of time. Finally, statistically significant sub-clusters were found within the three large clusters (p<0.05).

 

Conclusion: Transmission of CL followed spatiotemporal pattern in Fars province, Iran. This can have an important effect on future studies on prediction and prevention of CL.

Break: Networking and Refreshments Break 11:20-11:35 @ Foyer
Biography:

Phyu Sin Aye earned her medical degree from the University of Medicine, Myanmar. She worked at the Department of Medical Research for three years involving in various population-based researches. Her interests are epidemiology, biostatistics, chronic diseases, and health care services. She went on to complete her Master of Public Health at the University of Auckland, New Zealand, with a focus on cancer epidemiology and health services. She is currently a Ph.D. student at the Open University, UK and continues her research on international cancer survival gaps and the association with health systems performance in seeking to improve cancer outcomes.

Abstract:

 

Background: The recent CONCORD-2 international cancer survival study1showed that the disparity in cancer survival outcomes among countries remained substantial. Cancer survival, a measure of survival of a patient from the time of diagnosis of cancer to a given time such as 1 year, 5 years and so on, is a key measure to reflect health care services for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This study aims to address the international cancer survival gaps and indicate the components of health systems performance which may be improved effectively to bring down those gaps.
Methods: This study uses publicly available secondary data: survival data of 10 major cancers for 67 countries available from CONCORD-2 study and the health systems performance indicators for various countries available from published academic papers, health statistics of OECD and WHO, and official Ministry of Health websites. The z-test is used to address the international cancer survival gaps and multivariable regression is performed to understand the effects of health systems performance indicators and other influencing factors on cancer survival outcomes.
 

Findings and discussion: There are statistically significant differences in cancer survival across the world, ranging from 3.4% difference in colon cancer survival to as high as 61.9% difference in rectal cancer survival when one country is compared to the country with a highest global level for each cancer. These values of cancer survival gaps represent room

Biography:

Marjan Zare pursued MS in Biostatistics and is a PhD student in Epidemiology. He has expertise in statistical and epidemiological modelling, and has passion in improving health care and public health policies. She has been working for Shiraz Medical School research center for three years and she knows how to work with R, ITSM, CMA, Lisrel, Arc GIS, SaTScan, SPSS, Python language softwares to do ordinary statistical analysis. Also, she is interested in doing micro array analysis using Mega Data in field of genetics; hereby she knows how to work with the related softwares like Plink and Hoploview. The basis of this research is to predict the potential outbreaks in the future using Time-Series data 

Abstract:

Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is an infectious endemic disease in most provinces of Iran, which is among public health problems. CL is prevalent in 88 countries in the world, infecting nearly 12 million individuals. Almost two million new leishmaniasis cases occur yearly, with CL accounting for 1500000 cases. Fars province is known to be an endemic area for CL.

 

Study objective: The objective of this study is to assess the spatiotemporal trait of CL in Fars province, Iran.

 

Materials & Methods: Spatiotemporal cluster analysis was done retrospectively to find spatiotemporal clusters of CL cases. Time-series data were recorded from 29201 cases in Fars province, Iran from 2010 to 2015, which were used to verify if the cases were distributed randomly over time and place. Then, subgroup analysis was applied to find significant sub-clusters within large clusters. Spatiotemporal permutation scans statistics in addition to subgroup analysis were implemented using SaTScan software.

 

Results: This study resulted in statistically significant spatiotemporal clusters of CL (p<0.05). The most likely cluster contained 350 cases from 1 July 2010 to 30 November 2010. Besides, 5 secondary clusters were detected in different periods of time. Finally, statistically significant sub-clusters were found within the three large clusters (p<0.05).

 

Conclusion: Transmission of CL followed spatiotemporal pattern in Fars province, Iran. This can have an important effect on future studies on prediction and prevention of CL.

 

Break: Lunch Break 12:35-13:30 @Restaurant
Biography:

Jing Wang, Chief Physician, has her expertise in health education and promotion and passion in improving the health and wellbeing. During more than 20 years, in her career as Director of the Department of Health Education and Promotion in Shanghai Pudong CDC, she organized and participated in various research projects of a national and provincial level.

Abstract:

Background: There are a variety of factors from work and daily life who affect the physical and mental health of occupational groups, then affect their work ability. Social capital as a characteristic of social life includes network, norms and trust. Researchers have reported that social capital is an important social factor that affects health, but the impact mechanism is not very clear at present. The purpose of this study is to explore and clarify the connections between workplace social capital and the physical and mental health of employees and work ability, and to provide new directions and strategies for Occupational Health Promotion and Workplace Health Management. Methods: 3988 employees from 14 workplaces in Pudong New Area were investigated with professional scale questionnaire through stratified cluster sampling. We used the structural equation modeling to examine the associations between worker’s basic information, occupational characteristics, physical and mental health, workplace social capital and work ability. Results: Worker’s basic information, the physical and mental health and the level of workplace social capital are the direct influencing factors of work ability, and the employee's self-rated health and mental health level are the most important factors. In addition, employee’s workplace social capital directly affects their mental health. Conclusions: Workplace social capital is an important factor in employee’s health and work ability. Policies and measures for raising workplace social capital would help improve employee’s mental health level and their work ability. The study provides an important research direction for Occupational Health Promotion and Workplace Health Management, also it provided a strong evidence for the measures of improving the team cohesion to increase enterprise productivity.

Biography:

Xianfeng Zhou has her expertise in disease surveillance and passion in chronic disease prevention and control. She and her project team built a cohort based on the community and contained ten thousand people in Pudong New Area. Since 2013, she and her project team carried out a follow-up survey every three year to observe the incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the dynamic change trend of risk factors related to chronic diseases. At the same time, they built Biobank. She is focused on the study of internal and external environmental exposure factors of chronic disease, further provide data support for chronic disease prevention and control in Pudong New Area.

 

Abstract:

Introduction: The latest China Guideline for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in 2013 didn’t recommend HbA1c for diagnosis of diabetes and pre-diabetes. It requires considerable research to evaluate HbA1c diagnostic threshold for diagnosis of hyperglycaemia.

 

Materials & Methods: We included 7909 subjects aged ≥15 without known diabetes from the baseline of Pudong community cohort in 2013. Participants took oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c assay. Receiver operating characteristic curve determined the HbA1c threshold in the diagnosis of hyperglycaemia.

 

Results: The optimal HbA1C threshold for diagnosing newly diagnosed diabetes (NDD) and pre-diabetes in this population was 6.0% (AUC=0.798, 95%CI: 0.779-0.818, P<0.001) and 5.6% (AUC=0.655, 95%CI: 0.638-0.671, P=0.008). The sensitivity (pre-diabetes: 51.78%, NDD: 63.60%) and specificity (pre-diabetes: 72.63%, NDD: 84.86%) of pre-diabetes was lower than NDD. The AUC of HbA1c for diagnosing NDD and pre-diabetes in subjects <60 years was larger than older (≥60 years) subjects (NDD: P=0.002, pre-diabetes: P=0.02). There were 13.81% and 14.34% of participants would be newly detected as NDD and pre-diabetes via HbA1c criteria; meanwhile almost 3.20% and 15.52% diagnosed as NDD and pre-diabetes by OGTT criteria would be missed diagnosis.

 

Conclusions: The optimal HbA1c thresholds for NDD and pre-diabetes were lower than ADA criteria. HbA1c and OGTT are discordant for diagnosis of hyperglycaemia. It is necessary to carefully consider whether choose HbA1c as a diagnostic criterion or combine two diagnostic standards. Age-specific diagnostic thresholds should be considered when HbA1c was recommended as diagnostic standard.

Biography:

Jung Eun Yoo has her expertise in evaluation and passion in improving the health and wellbeing. She always tries to provide a personalized healthcare for each patient, including prevention and early diagnosis of diseases resulting from one's lifestyle problems, degenerative illnesses, and cancers. In addition, she offers professional help for patients and their family's well-being, including matters related to nutrition, exercise, smoking and drinking, stress, and aging

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between parental hypertension and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents. We analysed data of 554 adolescents aged 13–19 years from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013. The associations between parental hypertension and cardiometabolic abnormalities in adolescents were evaluated through multivariate logistic regression. Parental hypertension was noted in 16.2% of subjects. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overweight (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.01–4.28) and obesity (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.09–4.07) were significantly higher in subjects with parental hypertension. The adjusted ORs for abdominal obesity (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.01–5.56), high blood pressure (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.19–7.78), and elevated alanine transaminase defined as >35 IU/L (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.03–7.95) were significantly higher in subjects with parental hypertension. Prevention of cardiometabolic risk factors should be reinforced in offspring of hypertensive parents.

Haeyong Pak

National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, South Korea

Title: Health impact assessment by income level due to heatwave
Biography:

Haeyong Pak has his expertise in health evaluation and air pollution in Public Health and Environmental. He was a Practitioner of Health Impact Assessment for four years at KEI (Korea Environmental Institute). He is currently studying health insurance policies at the National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital. His recent areas of interest include artificial intelligence and climate change modeling clinical trials.

Abstract:

Health impact of high temperature has been reported since the early 20th century. In South Korea, it is reported that mortality increases with temperature above city-specific thresholds during the hot season in Seoul. However, the health impact of high temperature according to vulnerability on morbidity has been inconclusive in South Korea. The goal of this analysis was to examine health impact of high temperature, according to vulnerability on morbidity in summer (May-September) Seoul, South Korea, from 2003 to 2013. To examine the distributed lag effects, we fitted a constrained distributed lag model that included lagged exposure variables as covariates, applying a function of days of lag according to B-spline bases. In our study, morbidity data are episode data based on patients, with applying the episode of care in National Health Insurance Service – National Sample Cohort (2002~2013).  We examined heat stroke in two age categories: all ages and those over age 65, low level of income, high region of deprivation. The summer temperature thresholds were 26.1°C in Seoul. A 1°C increase in temperatures above morbidity-specific thresholds was associated with increase in heat stroke episode counts for all ages, and for those over age 65 of 35.86% and 50.05%, 44.56% and 52.42% for low level of income, 42.28% and 62.62% for high region of deprivation.  Associations were stronger for low level of income and high region of deprivation in heat stroke, to a lesser extent, total group. Our study found that high temperature was associated increased risk of heat stroke, according to vulnerability in Seoul.  Consequentially, evidence of this study has the potential to inform public health efforts, such as heat warning systems for differential high temperature according to vulnerability.

Biography:

Wan Chen Hsu is a full-time Research Assistant in the Department of Public Health, National Cheng Kung University. Before studying at the graduate school, she is interested in studying the health issues of older population which made her chose this topic about mobility of caregivers as her research.

Abstract:

Introduction: Retirement leads to many impacts on the middle-aged and older adults, such as role change, social relationship, a lot of free time and financial planning. Previous studies showed that well-retirement planning would lower the anxiety and improve quality of life. However, fewer studies explore the association between retirement planning and quality of life in Asia countries. Hence, this research aimed to examine the relationship between retirement planning and quality of life for the middle and older adults in Taiwan.

 

Methods: This study analysed 3141 samples aged 50-74 years old from “Retirement planning on life adaptation and health status of post retirement” database in Taiwan. These participants received pension from Public Insurance or Labor Insurance. Pre-retirement planning was grouped into 4 types: (1) no planning, (2) plan 1-2 items, (3) plan 3-5 items, (4) plan 6 and above items. Quality of life was measured by SF-12 and summarize to PCS (Physical Component Summary,) and MCS (Mental Component Summary). Descriptive statistics, Chi-Square, T-test and multiple regressions were used in this study.

Result: Results showed that 68% retiree had no retirement planning, 11.1% retiree planned 1-2 items, 11.1% retiree planned 3-5 items, and 9.8% retiree planned 6 and above items. In MCS score, prepare 3-5 items retirement planning and 6 and above items were significantly higher than no planning (β=1.07 and 1.51, respectively). However, pre-retirement planning showed no relationship in PCS score.

Discussion: According to the result, pre-retirement planning of retirees presented better mental health and displayed a dose-response relationship between items of pre-retirement planning and mental health scores. It is suggested that workplace should offer more kinds of pre-retirement planning but not only financial planning to improve life adaptation of retirement life.

 

Biography:

Tomoko Tachibana has her expertise in research and passion in improving the health and wellbeing. Her research on regional models for progressing toward establishment of a “Disability Registry,” using the Clinical Efficacy Database creates new pathways for improving health and welfare policies for people with disabilities. She has been building this model over years of experience in clinical medicine, research, evaluation, teaching and administration in a hospital, public health centres and an education institution. For supporting independent decision-making and activities by people with disabilities, and putting into practice evidence-based health and welfare policies for them, she has been advancing research to promote accumulation and utilization of epidemiological evidence data which are needed for policy evaluation, cooperation between medicine and welfare, etc. The National Institute of Public Health, whose mission is to carry out human resources development and to conduct research in public health, was established in 2002, integrating the (former) National Institute of Public Health, National Institute of Health Services Management, etc.

Abstract:

Background and aim: Disease structure has been changing in many countries, and the global burden is shifting to non-infectious diseases. Due to the growing ratio of the aged population in Japan, medical and social security systems need to be transformed from “cure” to “support”. The definition of “health” in care-focused mature societies is discussed based on Japan’s current health policies.

 

Methods: Evidence-based public health policies were compared between cancer and trauma (injuries, damage, and sequelae).

 

Findings: Public health policy for cancer follows the Cancer Control Act. Evidence such as survival rates is useful not only for health care providers and policymakers but also for cancer patients in executing the right to self-determination in promoting health. Meanwhile, evidence about long-term outcomes of trauma in Japan is overwhelmingly lacking, although the incidence of trauma is estimated to be comparable to that of neoplasms in the 2014 National Patient Survey. We have proposed to review health and welfare policies for people with disabilities from the viewpoint of longitudinal epidemiological studies that understand disease conditions from the viewpoint of the people concerned as ordinary citizens by redefining the prognoses of trauma as “the outcomes of acquired disability”. To realize this review in the community-based integrated care system, we focus on the database of diagnoses, treatments, treatment effects, etc. of patients visiting medical institutions, and intend to develop a disability registry.

 

Interpretation: Developing this registry utilizing clinical effect information is expected to enhance quality as evidence in health and welfare policies for people with disabilities. In care-focused mature societies such as Japan, the following concept needs to be included in the definition of health: Taking into consideration the disease burden, and various other “social, physical and psychological problems,” health pertains to maintaining the patient’s quality of life, enabling his/her control over his/her own life, offering things that he/she can do him/herself, and fostering his/her self-actualization

Biography:

Yan Ping Lin is a full-time Research Assistant in the Department of Public Health, National Cheng Kung University. Her past research has focused on the relationship between MSM groups, drug users and AIDS when she was an undergraduate student in Kaohsiung Medical University. As a Graduate Student in National Cheng Kung University, she has involved in research of health issues related to the older population, especially in the relationship between working transition and health.

 

Abstract:

Introduction: Past studies indicated that pre-retirement planning is helpful to release anxiety and adapt retired life of retirees. However, few studies examined the factors of pre-retirement planning among middle-aged and older adults. Therefore, the aim of this study is to find out the factors affecting middle-aged and older adults to prepare pre-retirement planning.

 

Methods: This study used a nationally representative dataset from “Retirement Planning, Life Adaptation and Health Status Survey”. This survey of 3141 retirees aged 50-74 years in Taiwan. Pre-retirement planning was designed with 20 items and could be grouped as five types. If retirees answered any one of these 20 items, they were categorized as pre-retirement planners, else as non-preretirement planners. The effect factors of pre-retirement planning were investigated in three dimensions: social demographic characteristics, work condition before retirement, and lifestyle. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, T test, and logistic regression analysis were used in this study.

 

Results: In this study, more than half of the participants were male and 32% of participants prepared pre-retirement planning before retirement (the average number of planning items was 4.29±2.95). A majority type that participants planned before retirement was “Health promotion and leisure” (77%). Compared with the group of non-preretirement planners, participants who had pre-retirement planning were significantly associated with age, skill level of pre-retirement occupation, occupation types of pre-retirement, working pressure of pre-retirement, working time controlled by yourself, company provide information of retirement planning, drinking, exercise, and perceived health. Especially, information provided by company is the most effective factors of pre-retirement planning (OR= 3.09, 95%C.I.=3.09-5.39).

 

Discussion: According to the result, “Information provided by company” was the most important reason affect people to prepare pre-retirement planning. Therefore, future interventions and policies should assist companies to provide more kinds of information about pre-retirement planning and establish pre-retirement planning courses.

 

Biography:

 

Yu-Mi Lee is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University. He was a Clinical Fellow in Kyungpook National University from 2013 to 2015. He took residency training in Kyungpook National University from 2010 to 2013 and also took MD training at Kyungpook National University from 2003 to 2009.

 

Abstract:

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), especially organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have emerged as a new risk factor of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We evaluated whether chronic exposure to low-dose POPs affects insulin secretory function of beta-cells in humans and in vitro cells. Serum concentrations of OCPs and PCBs were measured in 200 non-diabetic adults. Mathematical-model-based insulin secretion indices were estimated using a 2-hour 7-sample oral glucose tolerance test. Insulin secretion by INS1E beta-cells was measured after 48-hour treatment with 3 OCPs or a PCB mixture. Static second-phase insulin secretion significantly decreased with increasing serum concentrations of OCPs. Adjusted means were 63.2, 39.3, 44.1, 39.3, 39.7, and 22.3 across six categories of a summary measure of OCPs (Ptrend = 0.02). Dynamic first-phase insulin secretion remarkably decreased only among insulin-sensitive individuals with increasing concentrations of OCPs (Ptrend = 0.02); the insulin levels among subjects with high OCPs were about 30% of those with low OCPs. Compared to OCPs, PCBs showed weaker associations. The decreased insulin secretion by INS1E beta-cells was observed for even 1 pM OCPs. Our data from human subjects and in vitro cell experiments suggest that chronic exposure to low-dose POPs, especially OCPs, can induce pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. 

Biography:

Z Abidli is a PhD candidate in the Biology Department at Ibn Tofail University in Morocco. He has recently obtained a Master's degree in Human Neurocognition and Population Health. He also serves as an active member of the Genetics and Biometry Laboratory. He took part in multiple congresses as a Poster Presenter, including the 6th International Congress on Toxicology in Marrakech and the National Congress on Pharmacovigilance in Rabat. He is currently conducting a research on risk management of anti-tuberculosis drug and the objective is to decrease the side effects of drug treatment.

Abstract:

In Morocco, a first assessment of the extent of pesticides poisoning, although not exhaustive, is made possible by the Moroccan Anti-poisoning and Pharmacovigilance Center (MAPPC). This work aims to study the epidemiological characteristics of volunteers poisoned by pesticides and to analyse their impact on human health. This is a retrospective study of all cases of pesticide poisoning reported in Morocco between 2008 and 2014, compiled by the MAPPC. The data carriers used in this study are the Toxicovigilance sheets and the medical records that are set up for Toxicological Information. The methodology used is based on the descriptive statistics and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). During the study period, the MAPPC had collected 2690 cases of poisoning by pesticides, this type of poisoning mainly affects adults (61.97% of cases) and 68% of addicts are female, with a sex ratio of 2, (P<0.001). However, suspect products are insecticides with about 55.86% cases of poisoning, the majority of which presented in a moderate condition (Grade 2) with 32.10%. The central and peripheral nervous system is the lead of the systems affected with 52.66% of cases, with a specific lethality of 7.5% (the number of deaths being 6 subjects). Patients presented several neurological signs including Convulsions and clonic seizures, Obnubilations, Agitation, Headache, and Coma respectively with 17.61%; 10.56%; 7.75%; 7.04%; 6.34% of cases. The principal component analysis makes it possible to distinguish two large groups, the male ones with different signs according to the period of poisoning, in winter with signs like nausea of asthenia and they generally are adults. The second group consists essentially of intoxicated children who usually show signs of vomiting, chills especially in spring and autumn. According to our results, pesticide poisoning is responsible for serious neurological effects, which should prompt us to implement regulations on the sale of pesticides in order to reduce the poisoning rate in Morocco.